World Geography

Raising awareness of the importance of world geography in the modern world means working for the future of planet Earth.

Many people may not realise how fundamental is the relationship between geography, environment and sustainable development.


Asia is the largest continent on earth. By including inland waters, it has an area of 44,472,097 square kilometers and represents one third of all lands above sea level of the planet. It is also the most populous continent, with about 3.4 billion people.

Asia is almost entirely located in the northern hemisphere, and it's bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Bering Strait and the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the Indian Ocean, and to the south - west by the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

In Asia there are both the maximum depression and altitude of the Earth's surface. The first corresponds to the coast of the Dead Sea, which is 395m below sea level, while the second to the Mount Everest, which reaches 8872m above sea level.
The southeastern part of the continent consists of a large group of islands and archipelagos (the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, with Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo and New Guinea. Further north you find the Maldives, the Andomane, Nicobar islands, Japan, Sakhalin and the islands of Taiwan)

The continent can be divided into five main regions: the ex-Soviet Union (Russia and other republics), China, Japan, Saudi Arabia and India. Each of them has its own culture, language, religion, land and history.

The territory is physically structured in a complex way. The entire northern section is rigid, flat and presents a succession of plateaus and mountain ranges.
The southern section is more varied as it is fragmented into peninsular blocks and is separated from the north section by a long stretch of mountain ranges. This part is typical for its instability and it is easy to see volcanoes which rise above the sea. The soil types are extremely varied: Siberia is covered for the most of the year by ice; in China and Mongolia, there are steppe and desert soils while in eastern Asia there are agricultural land, above all in India where you find the major rivers like the Ganges and Indo.

As for hydrography, mountains and reliefs in the heart of Asia are considered the main source from which rise the main rivers that flow in all directions. Seven of these are among the twelve longest in the world. To the north, toward the Arctic Ocean, flow rivers such as the Lena, Jenisey and Ob. To the west, come down several rivers such as the Ili, the Syrdorja e the Amudarja which irrigate the plains of Central Asia and debouch into inland seas and Aral Lake, in the case of the other two. To the south, the great rivers flow through the vast lowlands: the Indus, Ganges, Brahmapuutra, the Mekong, the Chong Jiang (Yangtze River) the Huong He (Yellow River) and the Amur.

Climate is varied because of both latitudinal abstention and exposure diversity. There are mainly four climates that dominate in the continent: the siberian, mediterranean, desert and monsoon climate.

The natural environments of Asia are very diverse like its climates.
In Northern Asia there is tundra, taiga and in some parts prairie. Here is the largest forest of conifers where survive many rare animals like the polar bear (in tundra) and the white wolf (in taiga).
In Central Asia dominates the high mountain vegetation on reliefs and desert and steppe where there are plains or valleys; while eastern Asia because of its population density is characterized by savannah which has replaced equatorial environments.
Luckily some beautiful tropical environments of inestimable value are save. This is the case of Borneo and Sumatra, where rare plant and animal species still survive.